A rendering of the basic elements of a composition, often made in a loosely detailed or quick manner. La vie est un songe, Filipacchi 1974 Cuba, 1902–23. In The Jungle, Lam blends Afro-Cuban and African artistic and cultural traditions with the European modernist movements of Cubism and Surrealism. Among the artistic movements associated with the School of Paris are Fauvism, Cubism, Expressionism, and Symbolism. Lam settled in Paris in 1952. A setting for or a part of a story or narrative. To find out more, including which third-party cookies we place and how to manage cookies, see our privacy policy. A three-dimensional work of art made by a variety of means, including carving wood, chiseling stone, casting or welding metal, molding clay or wax, or assembling materials. A person who draws plans or designs, often of structures to be built; a person who draws skillfully, especially an artist. Lam, who had spent three years working with the Surrealists in Paris, aimed for The Jungle to convey the haunting consequences of slavery and colonialism for his native island of Cuba. In response, they overlaid their own traditions onto Catholicism (creating Santería), while continuing to practice their religions, such as Voodoun, in secret, in such hidden settings as the jungle that crowds Lam’s painting. Ce tableau, réalisé dans les années 1942-43, a été considéré, par certains critiques de l´époque, comme le premier manifeste plastique du tiers-monde parce qu´il était d´accord In art, the juxtaposition of irrational images reveal a “super-reality,” or “sur-reality.” In Lam’s work, an other-worldly atmosphere emerges from the constant shifting taking place among the figures; they are at once human, animal, organic, and mystical. The artist’s own family included people of African descent. More information is also available about the film collection and the Circulating Film and Video Library. This record is a work in progress. Wifredo Lam was born on December 8, 1902, in Cuba. This metamorphosis among t… Interview de Wifredo Lam dans Wifredo Lam. The multiperspectival rendering of these figures recalls Cubism, while the fantastical moonlit jungle scene around the monstrous beings—which are half-human, half-animal—evokes the realm of the Surrealists. The Jungle: Where Worlds Collide In 1943, Wifredo Lam was in the midst of re-acquainting himself with his native Cuba, especially its population of African descent. Resembling or using the simple rectilinear or curvilinear lines used in geometry. La Jungla (The Jungle 1943), Wifredo Lam . “What really broadened my painting is the presence of African poetry.”3, Wifredo Lam, quoted in C. Gerald Fraser, “Wilfredo Lam, 80, Painter, Is Dead,”. The polymorphism, for which Lam is well known, juxtaposes aspects of humans, animals, and plants, creating monstrous, hybrid creatures. At the end of his life, the celebrated painter, draftsman, and sculptor Wifredo Lam (Cuban, 1902–1982) was asked to reflect upon why he painted. Lam’s ethnic and cultural heritage included the African diaspora in Cuba, and when he returned to the island in the 1940s, he became reengaged with the concerns of its Afro-Cuban community. Originally enslaved by Spanish and Portuguese traders and brought to the island to work its sugarcane fields, Africans were forced to abandon their native beliefs and convert to Catholicism. In the 1920s and 30s, Lam was in Madrid and Paris, but in 1941 as Europe was engulfed by war, he returned to his native country. … But a true picture has the power to set the imagination to work even if it takes time.”2 The “true picture” of which he spoke is his monumental painting The Jungle (1943). Lam’s distinctive style and exploration of Afro-Cuban visual culture, alongside his knowledge of European modernism, made a hug… We use our own and third-party cookies to personalize your experience and the promotions you see. Lam was born in Cuba but spent much of his twenties and thirties in Europe, a sojourn that deeply affected his artistic vision. During the interwar period in Paris, Lam befriended the Surrealists, whose influence is evident in The Jungle. The Jungle, which is considered Lam's masterpiece, is exemplary of the artist's mature style. He depicted figures with crescent-shaped faces, recalling African or Pacific Islander masks, against a background of Cuban sugarcane fields. He was the eighth child born to Lam-Yam―born in Canton around 1820, an immigrant to the Americas in 1860―and to Ana Serafina Catilla―born in 1862 in Cuba of mixed African and Spanish ancestry. In 1941, Lam returned to Cuba. The Jungle, above, is the most famous example of his work and displays the merging of European painting tradition in its Cubist perspective yet the masked figures amidst the sugarcane and … 1943. Traditional subjects—nudes, landscapes, and still lifes—were reinvented as increasingly fragmented compositions. In his 1924 “Surrealist Manifesto,” Breton argued for an uninhibited mode of expression derived from the mind’s involuntary mechanisms, particularly dreams, and called on artists to explore the uncharted depths of the imagination with radical new methods and visual forms. There are four female figures in a row across the canvas. A combination of pigment, binder, and solvent (noun); the act of producing a picture using paint (verb, gerund). “I wanted with all my heart to paint the drama of my country, but by thoroughly expressing the black spirit, the beauty of the plastic art of the blacks,” he once said. Wilfredo Lam was inspired by the most renowned artists of the 20th century including Pablo Picasso, Lam melded his in Wifredo Lam, quoted in Wifredo Lam website, http://www.wifredolam.net/en/biography. Cubism’s influence extended to an international network of artists working in Paris in those years and beyond. A distinctive or characteristic manner of expression. Also, a substance, such as a dye, pigment, or paint, that imparts a hue. French for “advanced guard,” this term is used in English to describe a group that is innovative, experimental, and inventive in its technique or ideology, particularly in the realms of culture, politics, and the arts. Young Wifredo Lam grew up in Sagua La Grande, Cuba. Drawing on the psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud, the Surrealists sought to overthrow what they perceived as the oppressive rationalism of modern society by accessing the sur réalisme (superior reality) of the subconscious. Available for sale from MLA Gallery, Wifredo Lam, Untitled (1977), Lithograph, 26 × 20 in In his later works, he continued to develop his earlier imagery, while simplifying his overall compositions and deepening the richness of his palette. The Jungle. Originally a term of derision used by a critic in 1908, Cubism describes the work of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and those influenced by them. Yet there’s a big difference between Lam’s dream jungle and … Wifredo Lam (1902-82), whose work is the focus of a handsome and long overdue survey at the Museum of Latin American Art in Long Beach, is … Discover how artists mine the concept of identity—and often challenge it—in their work. Please, © 2021 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris. Working mainly in gouache, he began painting fantastical figures with fragmented, geometrical bodies and often with a combination of human and animal parts and faces resembling the African carvings that so fascinated him and his peers. Wifredo Lam was a Cuban-born artist, best known for his large scale paintings which reference modernist aesthetics and Afro-Cuban imagery to explore themes of social injustice, spirituality and rebirth. We have identified these works in the following photos from our exhibition history. Wilfredo Lam was a Cuban artist whom depicted the enduring Afro-Cuban spirit and culture. Discover how Surrealists explored the terrain of the subconscious mind in landscape paintings. These ranged from abstract “automatic” drawings to hyper-realistic painted scenes inspired by dreams and nightmares to uncanny combinations of materials and objects. A loosely defined affiliation of international artists living and working in Paris from 1900 until about 1940, who applied a diversity of new styles and techniques to such traditional subjects as portraiture, figure studies, landscapes, cityscapes, and still lifes. In art, the juxtaposition of irrational images reveal a “super-reality,” or “sur-reality.” In Lam’s work, an other-worldly atmosphere emerges from the constant shifting taking place among the figures; they are at once human, animal, organic, and mystical. The figures seem to simultaneously emerge from and merge with a dense wall of vegetation composed of thick, banded stalks suggestive of the sugarcane that grew in the fields the slaves worked. Already immersed in African art during his time in Paris, in Cuba he began to frequent Santería ceremonies. Reading a survey on Caribbean art that I found at the public library, Wilfredo Lam came up at least half a dozen times before I even got to the section on Afro-Cubanism. The polymorphism, for which Lam is well known, juxtaposes aspects of humans, animals and plants, creating monstrous, hybrid creatures. Moved by the hardships of his country’s black population and fascinated by their worship rituals, he aimed to express their culture through his art. The perceived hue of an object, produced by the manner in which it reflects or emits light into the eye. Lam painted The Jungle during a flowering of interest in Afro-Cuban traditions by writers, artists, and intellectuals. One who produces a three-dimensional work of art using any of a variety of means, including carving wood, chiseling stone, casting or welding metal, molding clay or wax, or assembling materials. He was particularly influenced by the modes of religious and artistic expression of Cuba’s black population. Some will do it with music, others with literature, I with painting.”1 With his multicultural heritage, extensive travels and life experiences, and active participation in both the Cubist and Surrealist movements, Lam was an artist with a lot to communicate. Project Description. Though Lam spent most of his adult life abroad, meeting and learning from leading European modern artists, he never forgot his Cuban roots. Find an in-depth biography, exhibitions, original artworks for sale, the latest news, and sold auction prices. If you have additional information or spotted an error, please send feedback to [email protected]. “I could have been a good painter from the School of Paris, but I felt like a snail out of its shell,” he once said. A Snail Out of Its Shell He blended elements of Cubism, Surrealism, African, and Afro-Cuban art in paintings that became further dominated by his combined human-animal figures, which seemed to fuse with the lush, tropical flora that sometimes surrounded them. In 1939, Lam met poet and founder of Surrealism André Breton and became associated with the Surrealist movement, which affected his style. By visiting our website or transacting with us, you agree to this. The Jungle, which is considered Lam’s masterpiece, is exemplary of the artist’s mature style. The arrangement of the individual elements within a work of art so as to form a unified whole; also used to refer to a work of art, music, or literature, or its structure or organization. The figures' elongated limbs lack definition, while much emphasis is placed on their larg… This metamorphosis among t… Lam was born to a Chinese immigrant father and a mother of African and Spanish descent. Source The dense composition creates a claustrophobic feeling while the forms remain difficult to differentiate. Working side by side, they developed a visual language whose geometric planes and compressed space challenged what had been the defining conventions of representation in Western painting: the relationship between solid and void, figure and ground. View Wifredo Lam’s 3,708 artworks on artnet. In The Jungle, the woman-horse depicted on the left is a figure from Afro-Cuban mysticism that represents a spirit in communication with the natural world. The Jungle is a Cubist Gouache, Paper and Canvas Painting created by Wifredo Lam in 1943. “Just one of the ways one can try to explain with full liberty. If you would like to reproduce an image of a work of art in MoMA’s collection, or an image of a MoMA publication or archival material (including installation views, checklists, and press releases), please contact Art Resource (publication in North America) or Scala Archives (publication in all other geographic locations). A work of art made from paint applied to canvas, wood, paper, or another support (noun). Umbral (Seuil), 1950, by Wifredo Lam. It lives at the MOMA, Museum of Modern Art in New York. “I wanted with all my heart to paint the drama of my country, but by thoroughly expressing the black spirit, the beauty of the plastic art of the blacks,” he once said. Born in the small town of Sagua la Grande at the turn of the century, his father was a Chinese immigrant and his mother a descendent of both Spanish conquistadors and African slaves. Since Lam chose a color palette of blues and greens, with touches of yellow and white, this could be read as a moonlit night scene, or as taking place during the day, under the cover of the deep shade of the jungle. If you notice an error, please contact us at [email protected]. He was born in Sagua La Grande, Cuba, of mixed Chinese, European, Indian, and African descent. Surrealists aimed to release the unconscious mind—suppressed, they believed, by the rational—in order to achieve another reality. See this work in MoMA’s Online Collection. Wifredo Lam was a Cuban artist who sought to portray and revive the enduring Afro-Cuban spirit and culture. From shop artebonito. If you would like to reproduce text from a MoMA publication or moma.org, please email [email protected]. Inspired by and in contact with some of the most renowned artists of the 20th century, Lam melded his influences and created a unique style, which was ultimately characterized by the prominence of hybrid figures. In 2018–19, MoMA collaborated with Google Arts & Culture Lab on a project using machine learning to identify artworks in installation photos. For licensing motion picture film footage it is advised to apply directly to the copyright holders. He was a contemporary of Diego Rivera. By 1923, he had completed his studies in painting. Wifredo Lam (1902-1982), 'LES OISEAUX VOILÉS,' 1945. Wifredo Lam was born in Cuba in 1902 of mixed heritage, and pursued a successful artistic career on both sides of the Atlantic. Printable wall decors are great and affordable way to make your home feel The customs, arts, social institutions, and achievements of a particular nation, people, or other social group. Wifredo Lam, The Jungle (La Jungla), gouache on paper mounted on canvas, 1943, Museum of Modern Art, New York. He depicted figures with crescent-shaped faces, recalling African or Pacific Islander masks, against a background of Cuban sugarcane fields. He moved to Paris in 1938, where he met Pablo Picasso. Extract of sample "Analysis on wifredo lam's jungle" Download file to see previous pages The artist’s attention in the traditional African religious beliefs in the Caribbean are suggested in the rightmost masterpiece, which seems like a woman-horse hybrid, a feature of spiritual entities. The Jungle was apparently painted in twenty days, between December 1942 and January 1943 (see Antonio Nuñez Jiménez, “Genesis de la jungle,” Plástica latino­américana: Revista de la Liga de Arte de San Juan [Mar. Gary Nader, Miami. Modern can mean related to current times, but it can also indicate a relationship to a particular set of ideas that, at the time of their development, were new or even experimental. This untitled gouache by the Cuban master Wifredo Lam dates from one of the most fecund and innovative decades of his artistic career when, after returning to his native island after a fifteen-year stay in Europe, he was reinvigorated by his Afro-Cuban cultural heritage. In 1916, he moved to Havana, where he began sketching the tropical plants at the botanical garden. One who applies paint to canvas, wood, paper, or another support to produce a picture. Cuban artist of Asian ancestry who was best known for his 1943 work “The Jungle.” Also excelled in sculpture, ceramics, and printmaking. In this monumental and thematically complex gouache, masked figures simultaneously emerge and disappear amid thick sugarcane and bamboo foliage. A representation of a human or animal form in a work of art. Four part-human, part-animal figures, with exaggerated hands and feet and faces recalling African masks, stand side-by-side. If you would like to publish text from MoMA’s archival materials, please fill out this permission form and send to [email protected]. That same year, feeling a distaste for academia and a passion for painting out-of-doors and in the street, he moved to Spain. He studied law in Havana before becoming an artist. The image is . A thin wooden or plastic board on which an artist holds and mixes paint. He also began making sculptures, extending his painted images into three dimensions. “I knew I was running the risk of not being understood. Wifredo Óscar de la Concepción Lam y Castilla December 8, 1902 – September 11, 1982), also known as Wifredo Lam. During the interwar period in Paris, Lam befriended the Surrealists, whose influence is evident in The Jungle. In popular writing about psychology, the division of the mind containing the sum of all thoughts, memories, impulses, desires, feelings, etc., that are not subject to a person’s perception or control but that often affect conscious thoughts and behavior (noun). A major early 20th-century painter, Wifredo Lam fused elements of Cubism and Surrealism with African culture in paintings that were exhibited alongside those of Pablo Picasso and other Cubists and Fauvists.A native Cuban, Lam hailed from Chinese, European, Indian, and mixed-African descent, and he was deeply influenced by African spiritual practices such as Santeria. Motion picture film stills or motion picture footage from films in MoMA’s Film Collection cannot be licensed by MoMA/Scala. Wifredo Lam remains the most renowned painter from Cuba and The Jungle remains his best known work and an important painting in the history of Latin American art and the history twentieth-century modernism more broadly. This merging of human, animal, and plant forms is described as magical metamorphosis. Wifredo Lam, (born Dec. 8, 1902, Sagua la Grande, Cuba—died Sept. 11, 1982, Paris, France), Cuban painter known for his synthesis of Modernist aesthetics and Afro-Cuban imagery. “It’s a way—my way of communicating between human beings,” he stated. “I wanted with all my heart to paint the drama of my country,” Lam wrote, “to disturb the dreams of the exploiters.”. At least the name was familiar. Surrealists aimed to release the unconscious mind—suppressed, they believed, by the rational—in order to achieve another reality. For access to motion picture film stills please contact the Film Study Center. The Jungle is a huge painting with an extremely intricate, complex composition. Wifredo Lam, The Jungle, gouache on paper, 1943, Museum of Modern Art. Lam, who had spent three years working with the Surrealists in Paris, aimed for The Jungle to convey the haunting consequences of slavery and colonialism for his native island of Cuba. The rightmost figure holds a pair of shears, a possible reference to harvesting, while the leftmost figure, with its horse-like features, could be seen to hint at one of the spirits in Afro-Cuban mysticism. That project has concluded, and works are now being identified by MoMA staff. Through a masterful exercise in the language of European modernist painting, Lam asserted the African roots of Cuban identity and addressed the troubling reality of Cuba’s colonial legacy—a reflection of his own confrontational dialogue with the European interest in so-called primitive art. Wifredo Oscar de la Concepción Lam y Castilla (n. 8 decembrie 1902, Sagua La Grande, Cuba – d. 11 septembrie 1982, Paris, Franța), cunoscut mai ales prin numele de Wifredo Lam, a fost un pictor, litograf, sculptor și ceramist cubanez. The context or environment in which a situation occurs. At nearly eight feet high by just over seven-and-a-half feet wide, this gouache on paper and canvas composition can feel immersive, or engulfing. Surrealist painter, Wifredo Lam, was born in Sagua la Grande, Cuba, of a Chinese father and a mother of mixed African, Indian and European origin. Favorite Add to Wifredo Lam original Lithograph Les affinites ambigues, XX siecle 1963 Abstract, Surrealism artebonito. You feel like you really put yourself into creating a stylish and cosy interiors and you have got yourself all little details but … have you paid enough attention to probably the largest open spaces you have – your walls? A representation of a person or thing in a work of art. Biography Wifredo Lam was born in Sagua la Grande, Cuba, on December 8, 1902. The elder artist became his friend and supporter, introducing him into his circle of Cubists and other avant-garde artists. An artistic and literary movement led by French poet André Breton from 1924 through World War II. 111 x 125.7 cm. The range of colors used by an artist in making a work of art; 2. MOCO SILVA MIKLOS / Passages de Paris Édition Spéciale (2009) 3-11 4 Résumé : Cet article a l´objectif de faire une brève analyse du tableau “La Jungle”, la plus fameuse oeuvre de Wifredo Lam. La Jungla (The Jungle 1943), Wifredo Lam Delectant 2016-12-03T13:23:43-05:00. By visiting our website or transacting with us, you agree to this. Lam painted The Jungle, his masterpiece, two years after returning to his native Cuba from Europe, where he had been a member of the Surrealist movement. The opacity of gouache derives from the addition of white fillers, such as clay or chalk, or a higher ratio of pigment to binder. Lam merged the artistic and cultural traditions of Europe with those of his homeland when he returned to Cuba in 1941 and renewed his familiarity with its light, vegetation, and culture. Our site uses technology that is not supported by your browser, so it may not work correctly. From shop Argaios $ 4.20. All requests to license audio or video footage produced by MoMA should be addressed to Scala Archives at [email protected]. A Modern and Contemporary art study set for test-takers, teachers, and lifelong learners alike. Cuba, one of the world’s largest sugar exporters, had been colonized since the sixteenth century, and the Atlantic slave trade had brought more than a million Africans there as labor for the country’s plantations. In 1943, Wifredo Lam was in the midst of re-acquainting himself with his native Cuba, especially its population of African descent. With their fantastic appearance, they seem as if they could have sprung from the artist’s dreams or possibly from his unconscious, the workings of the mind that especially interested the Surrealists. 1. Though he was raised Roman Catholic, strands of such Afro-Caribbean religious practices as Santería—a hybrid of West African Yoruba traditions and Catholicism—filtered into his upbringing and would come to greatly influence his art. Gouache on paper mounted on canvas, 94 1/4 x 90 1/2" (239.4 x 229.9 cm). The Surrealists derived much inspiration from psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud’s theories on dreams and the workings of the subconscious mind. His father was Chinese and his mother was a Cuban woman of mixed Spanish and African heritage. A water-based matte paint, sometimes called opaque watercolor, composed of ground pigments and plant-based binders, such as gum Arabic or gum tragacanth. In Spain, Lam experienced European artistic practices firsthand, working and studying with radical, nonconformist painters and absorbing early influences from the compositions of Paul Cézanne and Paul Gauguin during regular visits to museums. A term broadly applied to all the visual arts to distinguish them from such non-visual arts as literature, poetry, or music. Signed and dated 1945 lower right, oil on ...[+] canvas 43 5/8 x 49 1/2 in. A closely woven, sturdy cloth of hemp, cotton, linen, or a similar fiber, frequently stretched over a frame and used as a surface for painting. Wifredo Lam was an Afro-Cuban artist best known for his unique Surrealist aesthetic that combined European artistic movements with the imagery of his native country. Wifredo Lam The Jungle 1943 (La Jungla) Exhibition Poster, High Quality Printable Wall Art Argaios. While there, he befriended Pablo Picasso and also established himself as an integral member of the Surrealist movement. In Cubist fashion, their bodies are fragmented into individual parts that do not seem to fit together logically. 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If you have additional information or spotted an error, please email [ email ]. Light into the eye available about the film Collection can not be licensed by MoMA/Scala to canvas, wood paper! 1974 Cuba, on December 8, 1902 – September 11, 1982 ), Wifredo Lam 1902-1982... – September 11, 1982 ), Wifredo Lam was born to a Chinese immigrant and... Plant forms is described as magical metamorphosis to Wifredo Lam, quoted in Wifredo Lam was born in Cuba began! Communicating between human beings, ” he stated of not being understood, 2021... In 1939, Lam befriended the Surrealists, whose influence is evident in the,. – September 11, 1982 ), also known as Wifredo Lam in!, people, or other social group European, Indian, and are! Unconscious mind—suppressed, they believed, by the modes of religious and artistic expression of black... Send feedback to [ email protected ] wifredo lam the jungle with us, you to.